Study and one accumulates, cultivate (Dao) and one surrenders.
-> When we study in school, at home, in society, typically we acquire and accumulate information. When we cultivate the Dao, on the other hand, we surrender our attachments and aversions.
Keep surrendering and one will arrive at non-doing.
-> In the beginning, the strong attachments of the someone is surrendered, e.g. attachment to feelings is surrendered, aversion to physical discomfort is surrendered, etc. At a later stage, attachment to the “someone” and “someone doing” are surrendered, doing happening on its own without the notion of anyone claiming authorship and ownership. This is non-doing.
Not-doing and not not-doing.
-> Not-doing: no “one” doing. not not-doing: no “one” not doing. Ordinary people just do and not-do; Advanced students align to not doing, masters neither do nor not-do.
Rule the world in non-doingness, if one perceive something to do, he is not sufficient to rule the world.
-> Be in the world in non-doingness. In such state, all is perfect. When attention is drawn back to the self and its perception, the notion of something to do arises, one becomes limited and not sufficient to rule the world (discordant from the universal rhythm of the Dao).
* * *
Chapter 48 Discussion:
This chapter outlines a key attitude in cultivation – surrenders. In conventional study, one usually thinks of learning something, acquiring something, understanding something, and realizating something, and realizing something. At a more advance stage, all of the above continues, yet no separate self drives or claims to drive the process. All becomes part of the flow, with one merely agree to and allow the process to unfold. Such is surrender.
Bilingual version of ch48: https://www.lisiming.net/ddj34-52/